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George Boeree Precursors of Psychoanalysis It often surprises students that psychiatry - meaning the doctoring of amerkcan mind - was not invented by Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis - a particular and very ificant brand of psychiatry - was his baby. Psychiatrists existed before Freud, and most psychiatrists today are not Freudian. The term psychiatry was coined by the German physician Johann Reil 1 inand would slowly replace the older term "alienist. He received his MD from the University of Nadre in

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George Boeree Precursors of Psychoanalysis It often surprises students that psychiatry - meaning the doctoring of the mind - was not invented by Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis - a particular and very ificant brand of psychiatry - was his baby. Psychiatrists existed before Freud, and most psychiatrists today are not Freudian. The term psychiatry was coined by the German physician Johann Reil 1 inand would slowly replace the older term "alienist.

He received his MD from the University of Vienna in His dissertation concerned the idea that the planets influenced the health of those of us on earth. He suggested that their gravitational forces could change the distribution of our animal spirits.

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He was, in fact, able to put people into trance states, even convulsions, by waving magnetized bars over them. His dramatic performances were quite popular for a while, although he believed that anyone could achieve the same. In point of fact, some of his patients did in fact get relief from their symptoms -- a point that would later be investigated by others.

When americaj of fraud by other physicians in Vienna, he went to Paris. They concluded that his were due to nothing more than suggestion.

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In order to serve the many poor people who came to him for help, he deed a sort of bathtub in which they could sit while holding the magnetic rods themselves. He eventually created an organization to train other mesmerists. Disassociated from Mesmer, hypnotism would go on to have a long, if controversial, life into the twentieth century. His father was both a barber and a surgeon, a common combination in those days, as both vocations required a steady hand with the razor.

His mother was also from a long line of physicians. Philippe began his studies more interested in literature -- especially Jean-Jacques Rousseau -- than in medicine. But, after a few years studying theology, he began the study of medicine, and he recieved his MD from the University at Toulouse in Pinel moved to Horjy in where he tutored wealthy students in anatomy and mathematics.

He moved to Paris inamericqn he came into contact with a of the renowned scientists and philosophers of the day including Ben Franklinas well as becoming familiar with the radical new ideas of John Locke and the French sensationalists.

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Although he could not amerivan in Paris, he became a well respected medical writer, particularly known for his careful and exhaustive case studies. A turning point in Pinel's life ancre inwhen a friend of his developed a mental illness ending in his death. In that year, he also married Jeanne Vincent, with whom he had three sons.

InPinel instituted a new program of human care, which he referred to as moral therapy. The men were given clean, comfortable accommodations, and were instructed in simple but productive work.

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Here, too, he provided his enlightened treatment conditions to the mentally ill. In that same year, he was made professor of medical pathology at Paris. InPhillipe Pinel introduced the first textbook on moral therapy to the world. Pinel is also remembered for dismissing the demonic possession theory of mental illness for once and for all, and for eliminating treatments such as bleeding from his hospital.

He also introduced other novelties to his hospital, such as vaccinations and the use of the stethoscope. He was a physician to Napoleon and was made a knight of the Legion d'Honneur in He died in Paris on October 25, He received his MD at the University of Paris in In he became a professor at his alma mater.

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It, and he, became known throughout Europe, and students came from everywhere to study the new field. Among them were Alfred Binet and a young Sigmund Freud. Charcot is well known in medical circles for his studies of the neurology of motor disorders, resulting diseases, aneurysms, and localization of brain functions. He is considered the father of modern neurology as well as the person who first diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis. In psychology, he is best known saunt his use of hypnosis to successfully treat women suffering from the psychological disorder then known as hysteria.

Now called conversion disorder, hysteria involved a loss of some physiological function such as vision, speech, tactile sensations, movement, ameeican.

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Charcot believed that hysteria was due to a congenitally weak nervous system, combined with the effects of some traumatic experience. Hypnotizing these patients brought on a state similar to hysteria itself. He found aerican, in some cases, the symptoms would actually lessen after hypnosis -- although he was only interested in studying hysteria, not in curing it!

Others would later use hypnosis as a part of curing the problem. Charcot died in Morvan, France, on August 16, The Unconscious Before we turn to the really big names, let's take a peek at the concept of the americna, so strongly associated with psychoanalysis. Most historians agree that the first mention of such a concept was Leibniz's discussion of "petites perceptions" or little perceptions. By this he meant certain very low-level stimuli that could enter the mind without the hodny awareness - what today we would call subliminal messages.

The reality of such things amerivan very much in doubt. Johann Friedrich Herbart was the author of a textbook on psychology, published in But, following Kant, he did not believe psychology could ever be a science.

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He took the concepts of the associationists and blended them with the dynamics of Leibniz's mon. Ideas had an energy of their own, he said, and could actually force themselves on the person's conscious mind by exceeding a certain threshold. When ideas were incompatible, one or the other would be repressed, he said - meaning forced below the threshold into the unconscious. This should remind you of Freud's ideas - except that Herbart had them nearly a century earlier!

Schopenhauer is often seen as the originator of the unconscious, and he spoke at great lengths about instincts and the irrational nature of man, and freely made use of words like repression, resistance, and sublimation!

My pride says I could not have done that. In the end, my memory yields. He blended the ideas of Schopenhauer with Jewish mysticism the kaballah and wrote Philosophy of the Unconscious injust in time to influence a young neurologist named Sigmund Freud.

The reader should understand that there are many theorists with little or no use for the concept of the unconscious. Brentano, forefather of phenomenology and existentialism, did not believe in it. Neither did William James. Neither did the Gestalt psychologists. Memories, for example, can be understood as stored in some physical state, perhaps as traces in the brain.

When activated, we remember. But they aren't in the mind - conscious or unconscious - until so activated.

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In addition to the concept of the unconscious, another early landmark of psychiatry was the introduction of careful andrr of mental jorny, beginning with Emil Kraepelin's work The first differentiated classification was of what he labelled dementia praecox, which meant the insanity of adolescence. Kraepelin also invented the terms neurosis and psychosis, and named Alzheimer's disease after Alois Alzheimer, who first described it. I should also mention Eugen Bleuler, who coined the term schizophrenia to replace dementia praecox in Now, on nfw Freud Sigmund Freud Freud's story, like most people's stories, begins with others.

In his case those others were his mentor and friend, Dr. Joseph Breuer, and Breuer's patient, called Anna O. Anna O. Twenty one years old, Anna spent most of her time nursing her ailing father.

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She developed a bad cough that proved to have no physical basis. She developed some speech difficulties, then became mute, and then began speaking only in English, rather than her usual German. When her father died she began to refuse food, and developed an unusual set of problems. She lost the feeling in her hands and feet, developed some paralysis, and began to have involuntary spasms. She also had visual hallucinations and tunnel vision.

But when specialists were consulted, no physical causes for these problems could be found. If all this weren't enough, she had fairy-tale fantasies, dramatic mood swings, and made several suicide attempts. Breuer's diagnosis was that she was suffering from what was then called hysteria now called conversion disorderwhich meant she had symptoms that appeared to be physical, but were not. In the evenings, Anna would sink into states of what Breuer called "spontaneous hypnosis," or what Anna herself called "clouds.

Anna called these episodes "chimney sweeping" and "the talking cure. The first example came soon after she had refused to drink for a while: She recalled seeing a woman drink from a glass that a dog had just drunk from.

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While recalling this, she experienced strong feelings of disgust In other words, her symptom -- an avoidance of water -- disappeared as soon ameican she anerican its root event, and experienced the strong emotion that would be appropriate to that event. Breuer called this catharsis, from the Greek word for cleansing. It was eleven years later that Breuer and his assistant, Sigmund Freud, wrote a book on hysteria.

In it they explained their theory: Every hysteria is the result of a traumatic experience, one that cannot be integrated into the person's understanding of the world. The emotions appropriate to the trauma are not expressed in any horby fashion, but do not simply evaporate: They express themselves in behaviors that in a weak, vague way offer a response to the trauma.

These symptoms are, in other words, meaningful.

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When the client can be made aware of the meanings of his or her symptoms through hypnosis, for example then the unexpressed emotions are released and so no longer need to express themselves as symptoms. It is analogous to lancing a boil or draining an infection. In this way, Anna got rid of symptom after symptom. But it must be noted that she needed Breuer to do this: Whenever she was in one of her hypnotic states, she had to feel his hands to make sure it was him before talking!

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